Pratītyasamutpāda (Sanskrit: प्रतीत्यसमुत्पाद; Pali: पटिच्चसमुप्पाद paṭiccasamuppāda), commonly translated as dependent origination, or dependent arising, states that all dharmas ("things") arise in dependence upon other dharmas: "if this exists, that exists; if this ceases to exist, that also ceases to exist." The principle is applied in the twelve links of dependent origination doctrine in Buddhism, which describes the chain of causes which result in rebirth and dukkha. By breaking the chain, liberation from this endless cycles of rebirth and dukkha can be attained. Everything except nirvana (nibbana) are the consequence of Pratītyasamutpāda, asserts Buddhism. This principle complements its teachings of anicca and anatta.
Julia Melcher describes the world of these expat American writers in her essay “Invisible Interzone,” in the most recent issue of Critical Muslim.
Tangier: a city of many legends, myths and dreams. A gate between different worlds: real and unreal, seen and unseen, magic and sometimes even tragic. In the middle of the twentieth century, the International Zone of Tangier, located at the Strait of Gibraltar, not only guarded the passage to Europe and the Mediterranean Sea but also embodied a sanctuary for outcasts, for people living on the margins, for adventurers and fugitives from Western societies. Artists, criminals, lost souls and sensation seekers found a home in a city they never really belonged to.
We construct borders, literally and figuratively, to fortify our sense of who we are; and we cross them in search of who we might become. They are philosophies of space, credibility contests, latitudes of neurosis, signatures to the social contract, soothing containments, scars.
An in depth look at borders, visas, identity migrants and the industry that enforces it all.
Frances Stonor Saunders’s article was delivered at the LRB Winter Lecture series at the British Museum.